6 New Food and Workplace Safety Regulations For Grain and Pet Food Manufacturers in 2022

workplace safety regulations for grain and pet food 2018Recent changes in food, environmental, and worker safety have caused many grain and pet food engineers to take another look at their manufacturing facilities. For greenfield sites or renovations, appropriate attention to food and workplace safety regulations from the outset will save thousands in fines down the road. We’ve taken another look at these key safety regulations for manufacturers to know in 2022 and added recent and pending rules.

6 New Food and Workplace Safety Regulations For Grain and Pet Food Manufacturing

In this post:

  1. Amended OSHA Slip and Fall Regulations
  2. NFPA 652: New Standards on Combustible Dust
  3. OSHA New Respirable Dust and Crystalline Silica Standards
  4. USDA and FDA: Food Safety and Modernization Act
  5. COVID-19 Protection
  6. ANPRM for Heat Injury and Illness Prevention

1. Amended OSHA Slip and Fall Regulations

Violations exposing workers to fall or slip accidents occupied three of the top ten most common violations of workplace safety regulations in 2016, including non-compliant ladders, scaffolding, and fall protection equipment. Seeking to remedy these preventable accidents, OSHA amended Regulation 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, which regulates safety requirements for walking and working surfaces, in 2016. Many of these provisions are already in effect, and several others are required as of November, 2018.

Grain and pet food manufacturers who are building up instead of out, as well as grain elevators and feed storage facilities should pay particular attention to these workplace safety regulations, some which are already enforced with fines.

  • Ensuring exposed workers are trained on fall hazards (required May 17, 2017)
  • Ensuring workers who use equipment are trained (required May 17, 2017)
  • Inspecting and certifying permanent anchorages for rope descent systems (required November 20, 2017)
  • Installing personal fall arrest or ladder safety systems on new fixed ladders over 24 feet and on replacement ladders/ladder sections (required November 19, 2018)
  • Ensuring existing fixed ladders over 24 feet … are equipped with a cage, well, personal fall arrest system, or ladder safety system (required November 19, 2018)

2. NFPA 652: New Standards on Combustible Dust

The dangers of combustible dust are no mystery to pet food and grain manufacturers. Between 2007 and 2016, 91 explosions occurred due to grain dust alone. In 2016 the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Standard 652 outlined best practices for evaluating risk and protecting against dust and powder fires. The new standard’s biggest departure from previous standards is the development of Dust Hazards Analysis on existing or future processes.

Though OSHA recently abandoned expanded regulations on combustible dust due to regulatory reform under the Trump administration, experts remind businesses that workplace safety regulations on dust hazards exist under a number of other OSHA standards. Project managers and engineers can manage their combustible dust risk in a number of ways;

  • Proper machine maintenance to eliminate dust leaks.
  • Separating feed mixing processes into different buildings to manage risk and loss.
  • Conducting thorough risk analysis to understand threats.
  • Utilizing temperature monitoring sensors to prevent sparks.
  • Installing dust monitoring and dust collection systems suitable for your facility and particulates.

3. OSHA New Respirable Dust and Crystalline Silica Standards

Combustible dust laws are not the only dust-related workplace safety regulation grain and pet food manufacturers should be aware of this year. OSHA regulations governing respirable dust particles require workers to use personal protection equipment (PPE) and requires facility managers to measure, manage and keep levels within Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). In 2017, OSHA amended regulations on exposure to crystalline silica, one of the most common types of harmful respirable dust. When crystalline silica dust is inhaled it sticks to the lungs, causing scarring and irreparable damage.

Though these workplace safety regulations are most important in the construction industry where workers are regularly exposed to hazardous crystalline silica levels, some steps in raw material feed processing, particularly cleaning, can pose respirable dust hazards. To mitigate exposure, take the following precautions;

  • Know who is exposed, where, and what causes exposure.
  • Measure and monitor harmful or nuisance dust levels.
  • Make PPE available and cultivate a culture of safety compliance.
  • Utilize dust collection with the right air intake and appropriate filtering.

4. USDA and FDA: Food Safety and Modernization Act

The USDA and FDA jointly oversee provisions within the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA), including those regulating food and pet food. Signed into law in 2011, many FSMA regulations are only now going into effect and under enforcement.

FSMA covers nearly all food and pet food facilities. The FDA’s current FSMA guidance document developed solely for pet food “covers facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold food intended for all animal species including food-producing animals (e.g., livestock, poultry, and aquaculture species), companion animals (e.g., dogs, cats, horses, and guinea pigs), laboratory animals, and animals maintained in zoological parks. “Animal food” means food for animals other than man and includes pet food, animal feed, and raw materials and ingredients (see 21 CFR 507.3).”

Pet food and grain processors undergoing process development should be aware of FSMA regulations which concern the following cases, among others;

  • Animal foods with high oil content which resist microbial heat treatments.
  • Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins, Fumonisins, Deoxynivalenol, Ochratoxin etc.) proliferating in grains.
  • Pesticides on grains.
  • Plant toxicants (lectin, protease inhibitors, cyanogenic glycosides etc.)
  • Animal-specific nutrient deficiencies and toxicity hazards.
  • Process or product cross-contamination.
  • Metal contamination from process equipment.

5. COVID-19 Protection

One of the most significant recent changes to workplace safety precautions came in response to the COVID-19 pandemic at the start of 2020. Workplaces as well as government offices struggled at times to provide the most helpful precautions to consumers and workers as new studies and information about managing the virus and preventing illness became available. With more data available now in 2022, a number of precautions and protections have been shown to significantly reduce the spread of COVID-19 and help keep employees and customers safer.

Many states, including Michigan, have provided workplace safety guidance regarding COVID-19. OSHA stipulates that state plans must be “at least as effective as OSHA’s and may have different or more stringent requirements.” OSHA has provided additional standards and protections based on particular jobs or industries.

Since COVID-19 is primarily spread through interpersonal contact, these protections are particularly important for food and pet food manufacturers that rely on numerous workers in close proximity to each other. As of August, 2020, over 43,000 meatpacking and food processing workers had caught COVID-19, resulting in nearly 200 deaths. A long list of legal actions by and between government agencies, families, and worker’s groups seeks to make these workplaces safer. A few preventative measures can help to avoid costly litigation.

Reviewing and integrating all of these guidelines can seem overwhelming. However, a few steps can help to simplify things. In their FAQ section, OSHA recommends the following:

  • Conducting a workplace risk assessment for potential COVID-19 exposure
  • Preparing a response plan
  • Taking steps to improve ventilation
  • In areas with substantial or high transmission, employers should provide face coverings for all workers, as appropriate

With these guidelines in mind, planning for and mitigating risk of a COVID-19 outbreak are very similar to mitigating other workplace risks. With a clear and transparent risk assessment, you can see which areas and situations require attention, and determine the ideal response. With a response plan in the event of an outbreak in place, you can keep employees safe, and minimize the need for or expenses incurred by an illness outbreak.

These precautions may seem less important as COVID-19 vaccinations become more widespread and the illness, and its variants, become less deadly. However, these precautions can help to reduce the risk and effects of many other illnesses and help to reduce the effects of another, similar, outbreak at a later time.

6. Heat Injury and Illness Prevention

OSHA reports that 18 of the last 19 years were the hottest on record. As temperatures rise, injuries, illness and death related to heat have become increasingly concerning at work. An Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) for Heat Injury and Illness Prevention in Outdoor and Indoor Work Settings seeks to address these issues. Though this is not yet a workplace safety regulation, it provides some insight into what employers can expect in 2022 and beyond.

In 2020, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 1,920 incidents of non-fatal injury or illness due to extreme environmental heat. Since 2011, between 18 and 61 people per year have died on the job due to extreme environmental heat. On average, worker heat deaths have doubled since the mid-1990’s. These incidents, and the proposed rulemaking, deal with a wide range of indoor and outdoor occupations, from agriculture to construction, manufacturing to utility work, forestry to landscaping, and many more. These incidents are particularly prevalent in agriculture, and are likely to impact raw materials operations for food and pet food manufacturing, as well as processing operations, such as grain elevators.

Heat stroke and heat exhaustion are among the most serious and common heat-related illnesses. During heat stroke and heat exhaustion, the body’s temperature rises past the level it can take, causing dizziness, nausea, fainting, organ failure and, if not quickly treated, death. Physical exertion, a lack of acclimation to heat, lack of water, and pre existing medical conditions can also worsen heat-related illnesses.

The rulemaking proposal seeks to address environmental heat hazards at work, heat illness response plans, acclimatization (which can reduce the risk of heat illness), and more. OSHA encourages the public to review and submit comments on the proposal until January 26, 2022.


Evaluating and planning for food and workplace safety regulations during project design and installation will prevent future problems. Working with an experienced and reputable process equipment manufacturer specialized in your industry will help to anticipate safety concerns and hazards specific to your facility.

6 Powder Flow Control Problems And Solutions

powder flow control problems and solutions

Powder flow problems cause frustration and hours of expensive downtime. They can also damage machines, create backups, and produce sub-par products. Some types of materials, machines, and working conditions make powder flow problems more likely. We’ve identified the most common powder flow control problems and flow control solutions to help you solve these troublesome inefficiencies. We’ve updated this blog post in 2021 to address material characteristics in addition to powder flow control problems and solutions.

In this article, you’ll find:

  • Problem: No Flow
  • Problem: Low Flow
  • Problem: Decreasing Flow
  • Problem: Material Flooding
  • Problem: Damage to Feeder
  • Problem: Clumping
  • Importance of Powder Properties

6 Most Common Powder Flow Problems and Flow Control Solutions

1. Problem: No Flow

Under normal operating conditions, the material should flow through the system without interruption. If no-flow alerts are a regular occurrence, the system is not optimally designed for either the material or the environment. This may occur in environments with high humidity, materials with high moisture content, solid materials that are irregularly shaped, or materials with certain coatings.

Solution: Agitation

Depending on the cause of the no-flow problem, a few solutions are available.

  • A mechanical agitator before feeder entry
  • Vibrator added to hopper
  • Air pads to aerate product

Each of these are long-term solutions that will ultimately save your time and money by eliminating downtime. When making these upgrades, make sure to conduct proper testing. Consider carefully where and how to mount the devices, and how often they should operate to be most effective.

2. Problem: Low Flow

This powder flow problem may go unnoticed for long periods since it doesn’t directly cause downtime. However, insufficient flow can affect all downstream systems. Low flow may be caused by obstructions above the feeder, or misalignments. This may also occur if the materials are too thick or the feeder is too small.

Solution: Bigger or faster feeder

The ideal flow control solutions for this problem will either expand the feeder to increase volume at slower speeds, or speed up the feeder to push more material through faster.

  • Upgrade to larger feeder
  • Add variable frequency drive
  • Change reducer on drive

3. Problem: Decreasing Flow

Some powder flow problems do not cause a sudden stop, but rather a slow reduction in material flow. Unlike other powder flow problems which are caused by materials sticking together, this is generally caused by materials sticking to the feeder because of static build-up.

Solution: Eliminate static

This is a particularly common problem in fast-moving, dry materials, but flow control solutions to this problem are generally easy to implement.

  • Ground the feeder frame to prevent static build-up
  • Use electro-polish on feeder
  • Add Teflon coating to feeder

4. Problem: Material flooding

If too much material is getting through or the material floods after shut-off, this can also cause production problems downstream, or result in inconsistent products. These flow control solutions create the opposite effect of the previous three, but they are implemented in similar ways.

Solution: Slower, interrupted feed

Upgrading the hopper or attached systems can stop flushing and flooding.

  • Vent hopper to reduce aeration
  • Install slide gate or butterfly valve at discharge point
  • Smaller feeder
  • Lower drive speed
  • Incline the feeder

5. Problem: Damage to feeder

If your system takes more damage and needs more repairs than comparable equipment, the materials or the system may be to blame. This may be a bulk solids or powder flow problem, and it can be caused by too much abrasion or improper system construction.

Solution: Slower speeds, stronger system

This flow control solution can be implemented by either slowing down the product or reinforcing the system.

  • Lower drive speed
  • Install larger feeder to slow materials
  • Add liner or coating to system

6. Problem: Clumping

When powders lump together, they can form a clump and a clog at varying points in the process. This can cause some of the previously mentioned powder flow problems, but it is also a problem by itself. When powders clump together, they won’t mix properly, they can harbor bacteria pockets that withstand heat, they can create empty pockets in storage units, and more.

Solution: Reduce cohesion

Powders may clump together for many reasons, including high humidity, static electricity, or reduced product quality. Take a closer look at the powder and see what may be causing the cohesion. Analyze the circumstances when and where clumping occurs the most; is the environment very humid or dry? Does it occur during one process, but not the next? Did a particular shipment clump more than others? This analysis will help you target the cause of the cohesion, so you can solve it.

Importance of Powder Properties

The equipment design and build plays an important role in preventing or solving powder flow problems. However, it’s also important to consider the characteristics of the material as well. When your equipment manufacturer has a good understanding of the material characteristics of the powder, they can build the optimal machinery to prevent powder flow problems.

Before working with your equipment manufacturer, it’s helpful to have measurements on the following powder characteristics, where applicable. Details on these characteristics can help an experienced equipment manufacturer anticipate problems. There are many physical properties of powders, and which properties are most important will depend on the process and the industry. In this case, we’re considering the physical properties of food powders for human or animal consumption.

  • Density: There are multiple aspects of a powder’s density that can affect how it is stored, how it flows, and how it’s processed. The bulk density, particle density, loose bulk density, and compact density may be important, depending on the process. In general, you should at least have measurements for the powder’s bulk density.
  • Flowability: This physical property will particularly affect how the powder moves from one process to the next, and how it settles within a container. There are several properties within flowability that may be important, including angle of repose and how the product settles. A product with a steep angle of repose will not fill a vertical container evenly, so it may require additional safeguards.
  • Cohesion: This is an aspect of flowability, however its importance earns it its own category. The propensity of a powder to form lumps will significantly affect how it’s stored and processed. Cohesion may occur through a powder’s natural stickiness, through static charge, through moisture, or through other means. If moisture is a key element of cohesion, it will also be important to measure the powder’s hygroscopy.
  • Aeration: This is another aspect of flowability, which also deserves its own category. If a powder is prone to aeration, it will become loose and create dust easily. These types of powders should not be subjected to freefall, as they will create dust and powder explosion hazards. For these types of powders, dust suppression equipment will be particularly important.
  • Particle uniformity: Particle size and the variation between particle size also affect how the material flows and how it’s processed. If two particular particles can vary in size and shape significantly within the powder, the powder will be prone to separation, which can affect product quality.
  • Abrasion: Many powders can be deceptively abrasive. A powder that may seem soft in our hands can become damagingly abrasive at higher velocities and in high volumes. Powders with abrasive characteristics will need special equipment considerations, such as special linings or coatings, so the equipment doesn’t wear out prematurely.

If you’ve inherited a system that constantly sees problems, or your materials have changed and it’s created new issues, consider these solutions. If you’re building a new system, take advantage of testing and proper construction beforehand and these powder flow problems will never occur. With the right material testing before installation, you can be sure that your system is made for your materials before it arrives.

7 Ways Feed Mill Automation Drives ROI

feed mill automation ROI

In any industry, automation is based on goals: solving problems, minimizing risks, and reducing costs. The same is true for feed mill automation. There are a number of ways that feed mill automation can improve the end product and solve or reduce problems throughout the operation. Though some facilities may automate all processes at once, step-by-step automation is also a viable option. Feed mill automation can drive ROI in the following ways, and many of these benefits may occur simultaneously, depending on which process or processes you choose to automate. We’ve updated this post in 2021 to provide more information and some more specific examples of these automation improvements.

7 Ways Feed Mill Automation Drives ROI

1. Reducing Labor Costs

Automation not only ensures that tasks are completed consistently, but also eliminates the need for manual operation. Repetitive tasks no longer require physical labor, and free up manpower for more sophisticated and important jobs. Automation can also protect workers from safety risks, either by removing them from dirty or dangerous environments, or by putting reliable safety controls in place.

Example:

In a manual batching operation, there may be one or multiple scales filling as workers monitor them. As the scales fill, the workers start and stop the process until the scale is filled to a desired amount. During this process, the worker must monitor the process the entire time, or risk over-filling the scale. Making this process efficient either requires multiple workers monitoring multiple scales, or requiring one worker to monitor multiple scales and increasing the likelihood of error. With feed mill automation controls, the system monitors the scales, and one worker can monitor, calibrate and maintain the system.

Reduce error and improve efficiency. Download the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching >

2. Enhanced Production

Enhanced production is one of the most common factors driving ROI in feed mill automation. With the right design and maintenance, automation can streamline processes and remove the need for breaks and pauses. The right machines can also work at a faster rate.

Example:

Feed mill automation drives ROI by making it easier to run multiple processes at once, and reducing error between each process. For example, a batch mixer must run for a set time period to fully mix major, minor and micro ingredients together. If the batch mixer runs too long, the ingredients can start to separate, and the system runs less efficiently overall. A worker in charge of monitoring the batch mixer can easily become preoccupied with another task, such as monitoring or managing another machine, helping another employee, cleaning up a spill, or many other things. The batch mixer will continue to run until the worker starts the next process. This ultimately delays all upstream and downstream processes too. Feed mill automation helps to prevent overruns and ensures each process flows smoothly into the next.

3. Measurable Regulatory Compliance

Feed mill automation can simplify regulatory compliance for rules like the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), among others. Track and trace is an important part of FSMA compliance, but can be difficult to accurately implement without systematic controls. Tracking lot numbers manually not only introduces error, but takes up workers’ time and energy. Lot tracing can easily be automated, and it will greatly improve accuracy. With a reliable, automatic system in place tracking where your ingredients came from, what they went into, and where the product ultimately went, you can reduce liability and meet compliance requirements with minimal costs.

Example:

Accurate measurements are important for maintaining product quality as well as FSMA compliance. In a manual feed mill operation, accurate measurements are often reliant on record-keeping done by machine operators. A worker might fill a scale, record the amount on a chart, and weigh the next ingredient. However, this presents multiple opportunities for error; accidentally recording the wrong amount, marking the wrong line on the chart, accidentally skipping an ingredient, and many other things. With system automation, these amounts can be automatically and exactly recorded.

4. Consistent Testing

To prevent moisture, toxins and other substances from ruining ingredients and the finished product, proper sampling and testing is essential. With automated sampling and testing, you can gather uniform, accurate information about ingredients and products. Detecting excessive moisture in ingredients from the start will prevent product from being contaminated, and allow you to hold suppliers accountable for defects. Detecting aflatoxins and other harmful substances in ingredients also reduces liability, as well as product loss. With feed mill automation for testing and sampling combined with automated track and tracing, any problems with ingredients or products can be accurately recorded.

Example:

While an automated system cannot require that a test be performed, it can provide reminders that help to reduce error. While it’s easy to forget an important test when things get hectic, or skip it to save time, it’s harder to do when the system explicitly asks if a test has been performed. A simple mechanism like a checklist helps to reduce humor error and reduce the incidence of deliberately skipping a step. For example, adding a test confirmation reminder for aflatoxins upon receiving a corn shipment can help to reduce the chances of using contaminated ingredients.

5. Reducing Batching Errors

Batching is one of the most common areas for feed mill automation, and often offers the highest initial ROI. By automating your batching and mixing processes, you can substantially reduce error and variation. When your recipe is programmatically controlled, corn, soy, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other additives are each exactly measured. With an easily re-programmable controller, you can even change the recipe without significant downtime.

Example:

Microingredients present some of the biggest opportunities for error. Since microingredients are required in much smaller amounts than major or minor ingredients, even seemingly small errors can be significant. In manual systems, microingredients may be added by hand to the mix. It’s very easy to miss a scoop, scoop the wrong ingredient, or add two scoops, especially when a process is repetitive and fast-moving. Microingredient systems measure and add these ingredients automatically, reducing errors significantly.

6. Automatic Routing

Automation of the batching process is usually the first section of the feed mill to be automated, but the addition of downstream routing of material can enhance the payback of the system. If the system has to wait for the operator to setup the routing of material to the downstream packaging or load-out, then valuable production time can elapse while waiting for a route to be selected.

Example:

By reading the amps in use, an automated feed mill system can detect if a conveyor or bucket elevator is currently in use or if it’s finished and ready for refilling. This tells the system where to route the ingredients and helps to prevent delays in between. While an operator might route to the wrong bin or might be working on a different task when a bin is filled, an automated system will switch automatically to the right bin.

7. HACCP

Through most zones, feed mill automation makes hazard analysis and critical control points easier to regulate and monitor. By gathering more data, more often, with less manpower required, you can get holistic, up-to-date information about your production line. You can also eliminate risks altogether by automating repetitive tasks with a high risk of human error. Automated regulation ensures that critical control points are monitored at the same time, in the same way, with no exceptions.

Example:

If the belt on a conveyor or bucket elevator isn’t tracking properly, the bearings aren’t properly lubricated, or the machine is working harder than it’s supposed to, it can cause a spark. Since powders and dust proliferate in the relatively tight space of an elevator shaft, a spark can ignite a powerful and deadly fire or explosion. Automated feed mill systems use current and voltage monitors to track when the conveyor is overworking and either stop the system or require a maintenance check-up.

Before starting or continuing feed mill automation, plan and design your system carefully. Conduct ingredient testing to ensure that the system is suitable for your recipe, and be sure to factor any maintenance costs into your ROI calculations. With the right system automating the right process, you can realize a return quickly and eliminate risks at the same time.

Using Automation in Bulk Material Handling Systems to Overcome Labor Shortages

Recently, labor shortages have raised issues for businesses in almost every industry. As employers struggle to build production back up and reopen after closing during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, finding or re-hiring qualified workers has proven to be difficult. Though recent events have worsened the labor gap, the labor shortage is not new for many industries, as more workers retire and skills requirements increase. Automation offers solutions to some of these problems. Here’s how automation can help overcome labor shortages in bulk material handling systems.

Using Automation in Bulk Material Handling Systems to Overcome Labor Shortages

Super Sack Handling

Using smaller, individual bags in bulk material handling requires lots of workers’ time and energy. Moving to super sacks can help to keep the system running smoothly and reduce the manpower needed to run it. This is one of the easiest ways to start overcoming labor shortages in bulk material handling systems, and it can also help to reduce costs, speed up the process, and reduce injuries and liabilities for the remaining employees.

It’s important to install the right super sack handling equipment when making the move from smaller bags. Injuries from falling or unbalanced super sacks or improperly cut bags can endanger employees. Use the right precautions when handling super sacks, and get the right bulk bag unloader equipment to make sure the bag is anchored safely, and the material flows properly.

Accurate Measuring

Throughout the bulk material handling system, accurate measurements help to reduce error and reduce the need for human intervention. One person can take a few minutes to calibrate, test and verify measurement instruments, but it takes multiple people and much more time to fix mistakes due to inaccurate measurements.

Make sure the load cell that you’re using is suitable for the equipment and the material that you’re working with. The capacity and accuracy of the load cell must make sense with the amount of material you’re working with and the tolerances you need. Regular testing and verification can help to ensure that the load cell is accurate. If you’re measurements are consistently off, look for common problems that can affect your load cells and measurement instruments.

Automatic Routing

A material handling system with automatic routing will move materials from one part of the process to another, with no human intervention required. This helps to overcome labor shortages in bulk material handling and reduce the repetitive, monotonous work of moving material from one stage to another.

This is often one of the first processes to be automated. Waiting for an operator to set up and move material downstream to packaging and lout-out eats into production time, and can easily introduce error. Relatively simple programming and controls can automate this process and move material quickly to the next step.

Easily Reprogrammable Controls

If a process changes, your materials change, or you need to replace or upgrade a machine, the controls operating the system must change accordingly too. For many computers or PLCs, this requires a trained engineer. Working through ladder logic and proprietary programming can take hours, even for an expert. Using simple, intuitive controls that can be easily reprogrammable will help to reduce the time and expertise needed to make changes or improvements to your process.

Electronic Record-Keeping

Tracking ingredients, weights, lot numbers, dates and more are all essential for FSMA compliance, product quality and safety. Most likely, some parts of this record-keeping system are already automated in your bulk material handling system. Adding automated labeling and RF code tracking systems can help to simplify this process further, increase accuracy and free up workers’ time for tasks that need human attention.

There are many benefits to automation in bulk material handling systems, and many other industries and processes as well. If you’re struggling to fill positions in a process, but you’re not sure about investing in automation, go through an automation considerations checklist. When you consider all the factors involved, you’ll be able to make the most informed choice about growing your workforce or expanding your equipment.

11 Super Sack Handling Precautions to Prevent Injuries

The increased use of super sacks in feed and pet food processing has saved operators hours in time, reduce costs, and helped to dramatically improve efficiency. A one-ton bulk bag (AKA super sack, flexible intermediate bulk container or FIBC) can take the place of forty fifty-pound bags. However, the growing popularity of super sack unloaders also introduces workplace hazards. If you are considering switching to bulk bags, make sure you have the right bulk bag unloader design, and the right super sack handling precautions in place.

Super Sack Handling Precautions in Receiving  

Super sacks are highly durable, and built and tested to carry up to 1 or 2 tons of material, however they can be damaged by improper handling or misuse. A few precautions and clear handling instructions at the receiving and loading stage can prevent many injuries later on.

1. Inspect the bag

When you receive the super sack or bulk bag of materials, do a brief inspection to ensure the bag is not damaged. In particular, look at the seams and the handles. This not only helps to prevent injuries that could occur from falling or breaking bags, but will also help to prevent product loss and expenses.

Get the secrets to feed mill and pet food automation systems design. Download the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching >

2. Careful forklift operation

Bulk bags should only be handled by a qualified forklift operator. To prevent the bag from tearing during loading and unloading, use a forklift with rounded or square tines, not sharp tines. Since most bulk bag injuries result from breaking handles, the operator should also take care during loading.

This procedure should be clear, and safety at this stage should be a priority. Instead of driving the forklift tines into the handles, the operator should manually place the handles onto the tines, drive forward, and then place the next set. Though this will take more time, it is an important measure to prevent damage to the handles and thereby also prevent injuries.

3. Alternative lifting mechanisms

Bulk bags are often shipped on a wooden pallet, so they can be lifted from the bottom. A lifting frame on the fork truck or attached to a hoist can then be used to attach the four bulk bag straps to the four hooks under the frame. Then the lifting frame can life the bag into position, or the fork truck can lift and set the bag by positioning it on top of the bulk bag unloading frame.

Super Sack Handling Precautions in Loading

4. Clear the area

Loading the bulk bag onto the discharge station is also a careful process, as this is where most injuries occur. When loading the bulk bag, no one should ever be underneath the bag at any time. This is especially important if you are using a hoist to lift the bag into position. The most common injuries occur when either the handles or the frame fails and the bag falls on a worker. This can kill or seriously injure personnel. To prevent this, the hoist should function without the need for a worker to guide or adjust the bag, and the area underneath the bag should be clearly marked.

5. Use a tried and tested frame

The frame supporting the bulk bag as it is loaded and discharged should also be strong and stable enough to support the system in the long-term. If the bulk bag often loads improperly and it is crooked or not properly supported, the weight will distribute unevenly on the frame, causing it to bend and eventually break.

Super Sack Handling Precautions in Discharge

6. Untie the bag, don’t cut it

When discharging the bulk bag into the system, there should be minimal contact between the bag and the operator. In some cases, a worker may cut the bulk bag spout with a knife to discharge it, however this introduces unnecessary risk. Instead, the bag and the spout should be untied and pulled into place.

7. Control dust

If the super sack materials are dry or they pose a dust fire risk, it is especially important to control fugitive dust during discharge. There are a number of ways to do this, and which is best will depend on your materials, facility, and the bulk bag frame design. You might use a spout seal, iris valve, or a ventilation system to control dust.

8. Control static

If dust does become a problem around your bulk bag unloader, a dust fire can occur even without an obvious trigger like a spark or arc. As the materials, especially powders, flow out of the bag, they create static charge. If a static spark reaches a dust cloud under the right conditions, it can explode. While mitigating dust, it is also important to ground the super sack unloader frame to prevent static buildup. By reducing the risks of both powder and static charge, you dramatically reduce the chances of dangerous powder explosions.

9. Eliminate pinch points

Finally, where the bulk bag spout and the valve or seal meet, make sure that workers are not exposed to pinch points or crushing. The care that you used to prevent dust fires can quickly be undone if workers can reach into spout-sealing systems or bag-elongating systems and injure themselves.

Super Sack Handling Precautions During Disposal

10. Don’t reuse the bag

In some cases, super sacks may be reused in other processes. While this is more environmentally friendly and can cut down on packaging costs, this method should be used with care. Reusing bulk bags can introduce cross-contamination, and it can damage the bag. Only reuse bags that are tested for this purpose, and only when cross-contamination isn’t an issue. Many suppliers offer recycling programs for bulk bags to make your operation more environmentally friendly without the risk from reusing the bags.   

Super Sack Handling Precautions in Storage

11. Store bags securely

If you receive multiple bulk bags at one time, you should also exercise caution about storage. Improper storage, can damage the bag and cause it to fail, or the bag could be punctured and material can be lost. If bulk bags are stored on top of each other to save space, use a racking system designed for this purpose. Never stack super sacks on top of each other.

Considering workplace hazards when you install your bulk back system will prevent injuries from happening later on. With proper super sack handling precautions from the start, you can take advantage of reduced costs and increased efficiency, while maintaining a safe workplace.

Liquid Coating Processes for Uniform Snack Coating

Whether for flavor, vitamin content, shelf life, or texture, liquid coating is the preferred application method for many cereals, snacks, pet food mixes, and more. Though this provides a number of efficient, time-saving advantages for snack coating, it can introduce some challenges if the process isn’t correct. Consistency and uniformity in liquid coating are two of the most common challenges in pet food and snack coating. With careful process design considerations, you can find the right process for your coating and substrate.

Liquid Coating Processes for Uniform Snack Coating

Before Application: Measurement

A standard mass flow system.

Before applying the liquid coating to the substrate, it’s essential to accurately measure the flow of each material. There are several way to do this, and which you choose will depend on the accuracy you require, moisture or temperature conditions, the composition of the carrier ingredient, and the layout of your facility. The carrier ingredient will be the “master flow” and the liquid coating process will depend on it, making accuracy even more important. You may need to consider potential flow problems at this stage.

You might choose the following flow measurement systems for continuous snack coating:

  • Volumetric: A screw conveyor, rotary feeder, or belt conveyor measures solid flow through RPMs (or Hz). A nutating disk, positive displacement pump, piston pump or turbine measures liquid flow through RPMs (or Hz) or pulses. Volumetric measurement is sensitive to changes in density, and not recommended for applications with high accuracy. Calibrate often to adjust for elevated temperature or moisture content,
  • Mass flow: Mass flow measurements have more versatility, with a variety of measurement systems. Weigh belts, weigh screws, impact scales, and nuclear gauges more accurately measure flow through RPMs and weight simultaneously.
  • Loss in weight: This measurement system works similarly to mass flow systems, however it measures weight as the material flows out. A garner hopper and scale hopper work in unison to take accurate measurements in a continuous flow system. This system is also quite accurate, however a facility’s height restrictions may be problematic. The scale hopper operates in weight exception mode during re-filling to accommodate continuous operation, and this should not exceed acceptable tolerances.

Liquid Coating Applications

With the measurement system determined, you have the right amount of liquid coating and substrate, but you still need to decide how to apply an even, consistent coating in the continuous process. You might use a screw conveyor, rotating drum, or mist coater.

Screw Conveyor and Spray

liquid application screw conveyor
Two spray nozzles and a screw conveyor.

As the screw conveyor moves the substrate, spray nozzles apply the liquid coating. In a simple screw conveyor very little agitation of the product takes place. To get a uniform coating, the substrate will require agitation. Some of the screw conveyor flights can be cut away to form more of a ribbon to agitate the product while moving it forward. Lifting flights and paddles on the screw conveyor will provide more movement, and there should be enough space for the material to tumble through.

The tumbling action through the screw conveyor must be gentle for fragile materials, which can slow down the process. Liquids moving through the spray nozzles can also present problems. If the liquid flow rate changes a great deal, then additional spray nozzles may be needed so the quantity being sprayed does not drop below or go above the rated capacity for flow and pressure, which can affect the quality of the atomization. If the liquid has suspended solids, spray nozzles will easily clog.

Rotating Drum and Spray

This liquid coating process works similarly to the screw conveyor, except the material moves through an open-ended cylinder. Flights lift and tumble the material, and spray nozzles coat the material as it moves through. This method is generally gentler and ideal for fragile snacks or foods.

Since the rotating drum is open on both sides, fugitive liquid and dust can quickly become an issue. Without proper ventilation or cleaning, the liquid or dust can create slip and fall hazards, unpleasant or hazardous working conditions, or it may damage equipment. The required length of the drum may also be a concern for facilities with limited space.

Spinning Disk and Mist Coating

liquid coating spinning disk atomization
Liquid application through spinning disk atomization.

During this process, the material moves across a spinning disk and flows over the edges. As it falls, the liquid coating hits additional disks moving much faster in the opposite direction below. The liquid atomizes into a mist that coats the material as it falls.

Atomization through spinning disks solves many of the liquid coating problems presented by spray nozzles. Since pressure is not required for the liquid coating application, density changes and solid suspensions are no longer a concern. This also allows for multiple liquid coatings simultaneously, regardless of changes in density or viscosity. Finally, the system is completely enclosed, which prevents fugitive dust and liquid from escaping.

Finding the right pet food or snack coating process will help you not only increase product quality and consistency, but it can also reduce costs, product loss, labor, and maintenance needs. Always test the process before installation, and work closely with your equipment manufacturer to get the right system.

 

Part 2: Ingredient System Planning Pitfalls For Micro-Ingredient Scales, Conveyance and Controls

In the previous post, we discussed common problems that can occur with the start of a micro-ingredient system, including ingredient bins and feeders. The latter half of the system is generally more complex, and more issues usually arise here. In this blog post we’ll cover micro-ingredient scales, conveyance and controls, and what you can do to design the most effective system.

7 Ingredient System Planning Pitfalls for Micro-Ingredient Scales, Conveyance and Controls

1. Miscalculated Scale Error

To find the right scale for your formula, you’ll need to to add all of the possible ingredients and the quantity of each. This will tell you the size of the scale that you need, but you also need to consider the margin of error. If the scale can accurately measure within +/-5 grams and the required accuracy of the formula is 1%, you won’t be able to measure 10 grams of a micro-ingredient, because the possible error will be 50%.

Reduce error and improve efficiency. Download the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching >

2. Miscalculated Resolution and Accuracy

The scale resolution is also important to consider. The minimum increment a scale will display is generally one 10,000th (1/10,000) of the total scale capacity. So, a 100 kg scale would display in increments of .01 kg. If this isn’t suitable for your accuracy measurements or your feeder output, you may have to reconsider your scale capacity. Using the 100 kg scale example, if your feeder puts out more than .01 kg of material a second, and the control system can only time shut-off to within a second, the system will be inaccurate by this amount.

3. Incorrect Scale Hopper Design

The type of materials, the available height in the facility, and the downstream conveyance must all be considered to design the right scale hopper. Limited vertical space in some facilities can prevent the use of some types of scale hoppers, like a conical scale. Use of a roll-over tub with a slide gate may be a better choice then for facilities with lower ceilings. However, since a roll-over tub discharges material all at once, this will only work if the downstream conveyance or next process can accommodate all materials. If your materials are better suited to pneumatic conveying, like fine powders, then a conical scale hopper will transition into the pneumatic system easier. If you prefer to skip conveyance and discharge into the mixer, a conic scale hopper or roll-over tub will work.  

4. Cycle Time Doesn’t Match Mixer Time

For the micro ingredient system to reach maximum efficiency, the cycle time of each ingredient—including the time it takes for the materials to fill, settle, and discharge—must align with the batch mixing time of all ingredients. If, for example, it takes 30 seconds to fill, measure and discharge each ingredient in a 10 ingredient mix, it will take 300 seconds total to weigh the material in the scale so the mixer could be waiting for the weighing process to complete. If the mixing time only takes 150 seconds, it will be idle half the time. To solve this problem and reach maximum efficiency, you might use two scales, each with 5 ingredients.

This will require some careful calculations, as the fastest cycle time time, average time, and slowest time will vary. The times for each ingredient will also vary by density and amount. Be sure to allow some room for timing variation.

5. Vibration Interference

Vibration can be used  i in a micro ingredient system to prevent bridging, ratholing, and other no-flow conditions in bins and hoppers. It’s also desirable to keep the different parts of your system close together to prevent the need for extraneous conveyance. However, if scales are placed too close to vibrating equipment, it can cause fluctuation of the scale reading. If the scale readings are dampened to eliminate the fluctuating readout, the scales may appear to be working normally and showing normal readouts, but the process duct may be weighing  incorrectly. In this case, interference through vibration may be to blame.

6. Conveyance Contamination

The most efficient type of conveyance is through gravity, however this is not always an option, especially for facilities with low vertical clearance. In these cases, you might use pneumatic, belt or drag conveyors. When using belt or drag conveyors, it’s important to prevent contamination from one batch to the next. Materials, powder or coatings that become stuck on the belt can not only damage the belt and cause it to stick or slide, but can also contaminate new material. Use scrapers or brushes to prevent material build-up on the conveyor. It may also be advisable to run a flush material through the conveyor to clean off the residual material.

7. Slow or Damaged Controls

The micro ingredient system cannot function properly without direction from the right controls. The control system, whether you are using a PLC or PC, should be able to sample each scale quickly and stop feeders without a long delay, otherwise overfilling will ruin the batch. The system should also be powerful enough to control all scales, feeders, mixers, metered liquids, and other functions with accuracy. Finally, the control system should be enclosed if dust, moisture, heat, vibration or other hazards are a concern. Often, a PC will be used outside the factory floor for extra processing and data storage power, and communicate with a more durable PLC directly controlling equipment.  

With different ingredients and recipes there are different challenges for each part of the micro ingredient system. If you have questions about the needs and capabilities of your micro ingredient system or ingredient automation system, take a look at the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching. This guide addresses the issues from this and the previous blog post in more detail, as well as many others not discussed here.

Part 1: Ingredient System Planning Pitfalls from Micro-Ingredient Bins to Feeders

Proper planning before an ingredient system redesign or new installation is pivotal to ensure the system runs efficiently.  With so many moving parts and considerations, it’s not easy to plan for every eventuality, and a few problems are consistently missed. In this blog post, we’ll cover some of the most common problems that can arise at the start of the system with your micro-ingredient bins and feeders.

6 Ingredient System Planning Pitfalls from Micro-Ingredient Bins to Feeders

1. Incomplete, Inaccurate Information

Proper planning starts with accurate information. When your numbers are exact and you have all the information you need on your ingredient system up front, every step in the process will be easier. Whether you are installing a new system or conducting an ingredient system redesign for automation, you will need key information about all of your ingredients. You will also need information about your new or existing facility. Finally, you’ll need some measurements about your recipe as a whole to bring your system together properly. It’s helpful to have all of the following information available and well-organized in a spreadsheet:

  • Number of ingredients
  • Recipe composition
  • Ingredient types
  • Ingredient bulk density
  • Minimum weight required
  • Maximum weight required
  • Daily usage
  • Weekly Usage
  • Monthly usage

Get the secrets to feed mill and pet food automation systems design. Download the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching >

2. Insufficient Ingredient Storage

The usage of each ingredient as well as the delivery means and schedule will both play an important role in determining ingredient storage needs. For micro-ingredient systems and ingredients delivered infrequently, this will be particularly important for planning the rest of the surrounding system. If the daily usage of any ingredient exceeds 250 kg, consider using a super sack unloader to improve efficiency. For this, you’ll need adequate vertical space or design solutions to ensure ingredients flow properly.

3. Flow Problems From Bin Design  

You want to make sure that you have space for all ingredient bins of the correct size, and it’s also important to consider the construction of the bins themselves. Micro-ingredient bins without sloped walls, or without an adequate slope, can introduce flow problems. Generally, an angle of 70° is sufficient, but this will also depend on the characteristics of the ingredient. Ingredients that tend to clump, stick, or don’t flow freely may need additional design considerations, like vibration. If ingredients aren’t flowing properly from the bin, it can create costly downtime and other problems further downstream.

4. Contamination From Bin Design

Sometimes, when ingredients do not flow from the bin properly, the material may stick to the sides or stay in dead zones. When new shipments are loaded into the bins, this can introduce contamination. If the material in the bin becomes rancid and then mixes with a new batch, it will upset the quality of the product. Special coatings inside the bin can further enhance flow and reduce sticking and dead zones, and stainless steel will allow the bin to be easily cleaned at regular intervals.

5. Incorrect Feeder Type

Knowing the maximum and minimum weight for each ingredient, as well as ingredient characteristics, will be particularly important for choosing the right feeder type. You might choose an auger-type feeder for powders or other ingredients that won’t easily break or generate heat through friction. If the materials are susceptible to these problems, use a vibratory feeder instead.

6. Inaccurate Feeder Output

Both auger-type feeders and vibratory feeders must feed ingredients through the system with the proper output. The desired feeder output will vary depending on the accuracy needed and the total volume of the system. Here it is important to have accurate density measurements, as the material density will affect output calculations by weight. Output may also be affected by flushing if the ingredient is free-flowing. Use a knife gate or butterfly gate to prevent this problem.

 

Problems with ingredient bins and feeders are often overlooked, as these parts of the system are generally simpler than mixers, scales, and controls. However, problems anywhere in the process can affect the end result. Our next post will cover common issues with the later half of the micro-ingredient system, including scales, conveyance and controls.

How to Optimize Your Ribbon Mixer

Ribbon mixers in many industries are designed similarly from facility to facility with few variations. However, some design considerations can minimize the up front investment and maintenance, and maximize production and quality. The best way to get optimal efficiency from your ribbon mixer is to get the right design from the start. Depending on your materials, environment and overall mixing system, there may be more to consider than you think.

How to Optimize Your Ribbon Mixer

Compile Ingredients List

Your ingredient characteristics will play a role in several ribbon mixer design elements, and starting with this information will help your equipment manufacturer optimize the design. This way, you will have the size and features you need, without expensive extras. What characteristics you include will depend on whether your ingredients are solid, powder, liquid, or paste. For solids, it’s helpful to know any of the following that apply:

  • Number of ingredients
  • Names
  • Bulk density
  • Weight
  • Particle size variation
  • Adhesion
  • Friability
  • Shear sensitivity

Design the ideal system for your ingredients. Download the Engineer’s Guide to Weighing and Batching >

Record Facility Requirements

In some facilities, space may be a concern. This will impact the footprint and profile of your mixer, which in turn affects volume and production. If you require a large 8 or 10 ton ribbon mixer to meet production, be sure that this will not crowd out other equipment or create workplace hazards.

Calculate Total Production

How much you need to mix will help you determine the size and profile of the ribbon mixer design, or how many mixers you may need. This way, you aren’t investing in a larger mixer than you need, or one that doesn’t make sense with your total cycle time.

Determine Mixing Time

Your ingredients generally must move through the mixer completely three times to be adequately mixed. How long this takes depends on the ribbon mixer dimensions, as well as the ingredient characteristics. To be considered adequately mixed, you’ll need a coefficient of variation of 10 or less. Testing the mixer and the system with your ingredients beforehand will prevent excessive variation, while providing the ideal cycle time.

Record Weighing Time

Minimizing mixing time can yield efficiency gains, but not if the mixer sits idle while ingredients are measured. How long it takes to weigh and discharge ingredients will give you a guideline for the ideal mixing time. If your weighing time and mixing times are close to the same, you can minimize idle time for each process.

Accurate Agitator Profile Design

To get a good mix, you’ll need to fill the ribbon mixer to its swept volume. This means the agitator profile determines, in part, how much the machine can mix in one cycle. The mixer profile should not exceed 2.5 times the diameter of the agitator. The design of the agitator itself, including the ribbon thickness and shaft, may also be a factor, as a heavier agitator will require more energy to move and will have more shear. A simpler agitator design can reduce the initial investment if it’s suitable for the ingredients and facility.

Determine Ribbon Mixer Profile

With the previous information, you can determine the optimal ribbon mixer profile. Longer mixers will be able to mix more volume, but it will take longer, though this won’t be a problem if the cycle times aligns with the weighing time. For lower mixing time and more volume, you’ll need to scale up the ribbon mixer profile proportionately.

Number of Ribbon Mixers

In some cases, it may be more economical to use two ribbon mixers instead of one that is double the size. This way, a problem with one mixer will only reduce production instead of stopping it.

Liquid Coating Considerations

If your ingredients require a liquid coating, you may wish to apply it during the mixing stage. Keep in mind that some liquid coatings may not be evenly applied at this stage, or they liquid may not be suitable for spray nozzles. If the liquid coating can be applied during mixer, be sure to factor in any additional adhesion that may occur. If material stick to each other or to the mixer, extra maintenance may be required, which can eat into ROI.

Determine Shear

Ribbon mixers are generally gentle and impose little shear on ingredients, however it can be an important consideration with some shear sensitive materials. Consider any solid ingredients as well as liquid coatings; are they likely to break apart or separate? Do the ingredients require more shear to break up clumps? Most mixer manufacturers are happy to do testing in order to determine the best configuration for your product.

Accurate Horsepower

Most ribbon mixers operate at around 20 RPMs, though the horsepower it requires will depend on the size of the mixer and the characteristics of the ingredients. Make sure you don’t overestimate your motor and overspend, or underestimate your motor and reduce power to your ribbon mixer.

Install Proper Discharge Gate

The discharge gate on your ribbon mixer(s) will depend on your cycle time, downstream process and your materials. Drop bottom discharge gates will discharge quickly, but they can be harder to seal and allow powders to escape. This can be a challenge for very fine ingredients. Slide gates will discharge more slowly, but will seal more tightly. Multiple slide gates can provide a tight seal with faster discharge.

Reduce Maintenance

The type of gear reducer used in your ribbon mixer motor can impose unnecessary maintenance costs. A shaft reducer in lieu of a jack shaft or foot mount eliminates the need for an oil bath on the sprocket.

Some ribbon mixers are straightforward, and the mixer design varies little over time and throughout the industry. Others are more complex, and considering all the elements can help you improve the design. With the right ribbon mixer design from the start, your mixer will continue to work quietly in the background, with optimal efficiency and no problems.

Solving 5 Common Super Sack Unloader Problems

The right super sack unloader system allows you to measure and process materials quickly and cost-effectively, with very little waste, error or manpower required. Unloading materials may seem like a straightforward process, however the wrong bulk bag discharge system can cause product defects, ingredient loss, and pose workplace safety hazards. The ingredients you’re using as well as the design of your system and the volume processed will all play a role in choosing a safe, effective, durable super sack unloader.

5 Super Sack Unloader Problems and Solutions

1. Design for Space

The first thing to consider with your super sack unloader is the design, which will depend on how you transport the bulk bags, and the design of your facility. Your bulk bag unloader design may be any of the following:

  • Forklift: If you are transporting the bag from the top using a forklift, this will most likely be the easiest and simplest option. This allows a forklift operator to easily load the bag into the frame from the top, with no other steps required.
  • Dedicated Hoist: In some cases a clear path may not be available for a forklift. A dedicated hoist design allows you to secure the bag to support arms and lift, then push it into place. With this design, it is important to motorize the lifting and pushing mechanism to put the bag in place.
  • Bottom Lift: Facilities with low clearance, such as those retrofitting from individual bag unloading, may use a bottom lift mechanism. With this design, a forklift operator can move the super sack and support frame from the bottom and lift it into place with only about half the height needed.

Keep in mind that staff should never be below the bags at any point while loading the bag, as this presents a serious workplace hazard. Though bulk bag failures are uncommon, they do occur.

2. Preventing Bag Deformation

As the ingredients flow out of the bulk bag, it will begin to lose its shape and ingredients will flow slowly, or even stop. There are several ways to stop flow problems, and which you choose will depend on the ingredients you are using and the design of the super sack unloader.

  • Raise the Bag: With vertical clearance available, you can lift the bulk bag support arms as the bag unloads, increasing the flow angle.
  • Retractable Arms: If the arms supporting the super sack are spring-loaded, they will retract as the bag loses tension. This maintains the flow angle.
  • Paddles: Pneumatic paddles at the bottom of the bag can push the ingredients up as the bag discharges. For ingredients with low flow, or for sticky materials prone to clumping, paddles and other flow aid devices are useful.

3. Accounting for Material Characteristics

The characteristics of your materials are also important to consider when choosing your super sack unloader. Some materials are more susceptible to flow problems or segregation, which can cause other problems in the process. How the material flows, its moisture content, whether it is prone to static charge, clumping or flushing, and other characteristics will decide what type of special features your bag unloader may need to be effective.

  • Flushing: Dry, light, free-flowing materials may have a tendency to flush, continuing to flow after shut-off. Pay special attention to the valve or gate below the bag to prevent flushing.
  • Dust: Dry, light materials also tend to produce dust. A ventilation or vacuum system may be required around the bulk bag unloader to prevent dust build-up and workplace safety hazards. When the bag is empty, dust can be trapped inside, so it is also important to tie the empty bag before removing it.
  • Clumping: Adhesive materials may form clumps within the bag, or the bag may become solid if it is compressed. In some cases, a bag liner preventing moisture can stop clumping. Pneumatic rams can break up solid blocks, or paddles can break apart clumps.
  • Static: Very fine materials as well as some plastic resins can become statically charged as they flow, especially in dry conditions. This can cause materials to stick to the sides of the bag or feeder and decrease the feeder capacity. The static charge can also pose a risk to scales, load cells or system controls. Make sure the super sack unloader frame is grounded to prevent static build-up.
  • Moisture: Some materials may need protection against moisture to prevent spoiling or clumping. A bag liner can prevent this, but the bulk bag unloader frame should also secure the bag liner to prevent it from becoming lodged in the feeder.

4. The Right Discharge System

To accurately discharge ingredients, you’ll need to choose the right discharge system using either loss-in-weight or volumetric measurement. Which method you choose will depend on the level of accuracy you require.

  • Loss-in-weight: With load cells mounted underneath the bulk bag base or frame you can measure discharge through the weight of the bag. This is suitable for ingredients in large amounts, but more accurate scales will be required for ingredients discharged at 40 lbs or less with 1% accuracy, based on a one-ton bulk bag.
  • Gain-in-Weight: For more accurate measurements, gain-in-weight measurement may be preferred. In this case, the scale be sized for the actual amount being weighed, so the accuracy can be adjusted to your needs.

5. Meeting Sanitation Requirements

If your materials must meet food grade or other USDA or FDA standards, you’ll need to make sure the super sack unloader and the bag itself are suitable. A bag liner is useful here to protect the materials inside from moisture, damage or contamination. In this case, the frame around the bag should secure both the bag and the liner, or the liner may collapse and enter the feeder. The frame, as well as any surface the materials come into contact with should be made from stainless steel to allow for easy sanitation.

 

With the right bulk bag unloader system, you can process materials quickly, safely, and efficiently. The best way to make sure your system works effectively with your materials, as well as your downstream and upstream processes, is to design and test it properly. Your equipment supplier can help you address these issues and make each part of your system efficient.